The Lakota Speech and Language Pathology Department provides a resource of information to the community. Lakota is staffed by 24 speech-language pathologists providing services to students at all school buildings.
Role of the Speech Language Pathologist
Speech and language services by a speech-language pathologist are provided as a supplement to the child's basic educational program, either in regular education or in special education. The speech language pathologist in the public school provides evaluations and remediation of communication delays for students in preschool through high school.
- What is language?
- What do children learn language?
- Will hearing problems affect speech and language development?
Language is a code that we learn to use in order to communicate ideas and express our wants and needs. Reading, writing, gesturing, and speaking are all forms of language. Language is an organized system of symbols shared among a group of people, which represent objects, actions, feelings, processes, and relationships. Every language has a set of rules that govern the content, form, and use of that language.
Yes. The first years of life are important for learning speech and language. Even mild hearing losses may result in children missing much of the speech and language around them. Parents should make sure that their children receive a regular hearing evaluation from an audiologist certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), particularly if there is a history of ear infections, frequent colds or other upper respiratory infections or allergies.
- What is an articulation problem?
- Is an articulation problem the same as "baby talk?
- Is it important to correct an articulation problem?
Articulation is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when your tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. A person has an articulation problem when he or she produces sounds, syllables, or words incorrectly so that listeners do not understand what is being said or pay more attention to the way the words sound than to what they mean.
An articulation problem sometimes sounds like baby talk because many young children do mispronounce or omit some sounds or syllables. Words that sound cute when mispronounced by young children may later interfere with their ability to communicate with others in the future. Some sounds and word substitutions such as /wuv/ for /love/ and /wabbit/ for /rabbit/ are developmentally appropriate for preschoolers and kindergartners. As a child gets older he or she will generally develop correct pronunciation on his or her own. If a child does not perfect those sounds on his/her own, the "baby talk" may begin to interfere with the ability to communicate. Some children have so many severe errors that their articulation problems are very different from "baby talk", and even adults who are familiar with them have difficulty understanding what they are saying.
- What is stuttering?
- What causes stuttering?
- At what age is stuttering likely to appear?
- Once stuttering has developed, can it be treated?
- Can stuttering be "cured?"
We still do not know for a fact what causes stuttering. It may have different causes in different people, or it may occur only when a combination of factors comes together. It is also quite possible that what causes stuttering is quite different from what makes it continue or get worse. Possible influences include incoordination of speech muscles; rate of language development; the way parents and others talk to the child; and other forms of communication and life stress.
- When should I seek the help of a Speech-Language Pathologist?
- Do children learn all sounds at once?
- At what age should a child be producing all sounds correctly?
- How can parents help a child learn to talk?
- How do you know that a child's language and speech are what they should be for a particular age?
- How can I help a child pronounce words correctly?
- Aren't all people non-fluent to some extent?
- What should I do when I hear a child speaking non-fluently?
There are expected language behaviors for different ages. For example, by 1 year of age, a child should use one or two words, follow simple requests ("Come here"), and understand simple questions ("Where's your shoe?"). By 2-3 years of age, the child should be using two or three word sentences to talk about and ask for things and following two requests ("Get the ball and put it on the table"). Children are individuals and do develop at slower or faster rates than expected. What is most important is that the child shows continuous language growth.
Set a good example. Don't interrupt or constantly correct the child. Don't let anyone tease or mock (including friends or relatives). Instead, present a good model. Use the misarticulated word correctly with emphasis. If the child says, "that's a big wabbit," you say "Yes, that is a big RABBIT. " A big white RABBIT."